1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
|Short Title / Abbreviations||
UNFCCC, Rio Convention on Climate Change
|CIL Subject Classification|
|Citations to Text||1771 UNTS 107, 31 ILM 849 (1992)|
|Date of Adoption||09/05/1992|
|Date of Adoption Comment||-|
|Place of Adoption||New York, United States of America (opened for signature in June 1992 at the Earth Summit)|
|Secretariat / Relevant Authority|
|Dispute settlement provisions||
“Article 14 Settlement of disputes
1. In the event of a dispute between any two or more Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, the Parties concerned shall seek a settlement of the dispute through negotiation or any other peaceful means of their own choice.
2. When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to the Convention, or at any time thereafter, a Party which is not a regional economic integration organization may declare in a written instrument submitted to the Depositary that, in respect of any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, it recognizes as compulsory ipso facto and without special agreement, in relation to any Party accepting the same obligation:
(a) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice; and/or
(b) Arbitration in accordance with procedures to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties as soon as practicable, in an annex on arbitration. A Party which is a regional economic integration organization may make a declaration with like effect in relation to arbitration in accordance with the procedures referred to in subparagraph (b) above.
3. A declaration made under paragraph 2 above shall remain in force until it expires in accordance with its terms or until three months after written notice of its revocation has been deposited with the Depositary.
4. A new declaration, a notice of revocation or the expiry of a declaration shall not in any way affect proceedings pending before the International Court of Justice or the arbitral tribunal, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.
5. Subject to the operation of paragraph 2 above, if after twelve months following notification by one Party to another that a dispute exists between them, the Parties concerned have not been able to settle their dispute through the means mentioned in paragraph 1 above, the dispute shall be submitted, at the request of any of the parties to the dispute, to conciliation.
6. A conciliation commission shall be created upon the request of one of the parties to the dispute. The commission shall be composed of an equal number of members appointed by each party concerned and a chairman chosen jointly by the members appointed by each party. The commission shall render a recommendatory award, which the parties shall consider in good faith.
7. Additional procedures relating to conciliation shall be adopted by the Conference of the Parties, as soon as practicable, in an annex on conciliation.
8. The provisions of this Article shall apply to any related legal instrument which the Conference of the Parties may adopt, unless the instrument provides otherwise.”
Secretary-General of the United Nations
|Entry Into Force Status||In Force|
|Date of Entry into Force||
|Entry into Force / Termination Provisions||
“Article 23 Entry into force
1. The Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves the Convention or accedes thereto after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
3. For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2 above, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by States members of the organization. “
|General Status||197 Parties (as of 10/10/2019)|
|Links to Current Status/Reservations||
United Nations Treaty Collection
|This instrument amends/supersedes||
1972 Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment
1990 Ministerial Declaration of the Second World Climate Conference
The text to the Convention was produced by an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee and subsequently adopted on 9 May 1992 in New York, USA. The Convention was later opened for signature from 4 June 1992 onward at the Rio Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
CIL has inserted the consolidated versions of the Convention text, including amendments to Annex I and II.