Panama’s Second Yellow Card: Global Takeaways in Combatting IUU Fishing and EU Trade-Related Measures
International fisheries law instruments generally look unfavourably upon the implementation of unilateral trade-related measures to combat illegal unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing . This remains the case despite their persistence in practice and arguable necessity in stimulating or crystallising multilateral innovation. Nonetheless, 2019 concluded with numerous proposals for expanding unilateral trade-related measures, including the USA’s proposed identification of states for the bycatch of seabirds or for illegal fishing in foreign exclusive economic zones. While broadening unilateral trade-related measures may occur through legislative reform, another avenue is their development and clarification through implementation. This piece focusses on the expansion and clarifications of EU trade-related measures evident in the December 2019 pre-identification of Panama as a non-cooperating third country in IUU fishing.